Restoration of epithelial gene expression patterns requires a combination of kinase inhibitors. mTEC-KO cells were incubated with 100 pM TGF-β1 for 72 hours to induce EMT. Afterward, they were incubated for an additional 24 hours with the indicated individual or combination of kinase inhibitors: 5 μM SB431542, 1 μM SB203580, and 1 μM Y27632. (A) Ksp-cadherin, (B) SM22, and (C) MMP-9 mRNA levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Significant differences between the untreated cells (lane 1) versus cells treated with TGF-β1 (lane 2) or TGF-β1 followed by inhibitors (lanes 3-7) are indicated by asterisks (*) (P < 0.05, n = 9).