E-cadherin expression is restored by combined treatment with a TβRI kinase inhibitor and either a ROCK or p38 MAPK inhibitor. A-I Phase contrast microscopy of mTEC-KO cells incubated for 72 hours with 100 pM TGF-β1 followed by the indicated inhibitor(s) for an additional 36 hours prior to fixing and staining with DAPI. (A) untreated control cells; (B) treated only with TGF-β1; treated individually with the inhibitors (C) 5 μM SB431542, (D) 5 μM SB203580, (E) 5 μM Y27632, or (F) 15 μM SP600125; and treated together with 5 μM SB431542 plus (G) 5 μM SB203580, (H) 5 μM Y27632, or (I) 15 μM SP600125. (J) Immunoblot analysis of cell lysates obtained from the above-treated mTEC-KOs for the presence of E-cadherin. β-tubulin served as a control.