Electrophysiological and RT-PCR analyses for ion channels in NI-hADSCs. Electrophysiological features of the hADSCs demonstrated neuronal characteristics following neural differentiation. a, The holding potential was -80 mV and depolarizing steps were applied in mV intervals from -80 mV to +40 mV. Voltage-dependent sodium currents were activated from a depolarizing step of -30 mV and blocked reversibly by TTX 100 nM. The peak current-voltage relationship was plotted against the voltages, demonstrating the voltage-dependence of sodium currents (n = 16). b, The hADSCs grown with bFGF and forskolin demonstrated sustained outward potassium currents. The peak current-voltage relationship was plotted against the voltages, demonstrating the voltage-dependence of potassium currents (n = 12). c, Under current clamp conditions, the resting membrane potential of NI-hADSCs was more negative than that of control hADSCs grown without bFGF and forskolin (n = 16). d and e, The expression of molecular markers for ion channel subunits increased following neural differentiation in hADSCs. The mRNA expression of human large-conductance, voltage- and calcium-dependent K+ channel marker, MaxiK; voltage-dependent K+ channel marker, Kv1.4, Kv4.2 and Kv4.3; ether-á-go-go K+ channel markers, Eag1 and Eag2; tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ channel marker, NE-Na; voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channel, alpha 1C subunit marker, CACNA1C; voltage-dependent T-type Ca2+ channel, alpha 1G subunit marker, CACNA1G, and TTX-insensitive sodium channel marker, SCN5A, each increased in NI-hADSCs. GAPDH was used as a control. The RT-PCR assay was repeated five times independently of different cells and the representative data are shown. The intensity of each gene was normalized to GAPDH. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01 compare with the primary hADSCs.