Effect of glycated albumin (GA) on microglial CSF-1R and M-CSF expression. (A) Without GA exposure, microglial cells exhibited weak CSF-1R immunofluorescence in the cytoplasm. (B) Following exposure to 250 μg/mL GA for 24 h, the expression of CSF-1R was clearly up-regulated. (C) Similarly, weak M-CSF immunofluorescence was observed in the cytoplasm without GA treatment. (D) Following exposure to 250 μg/mL GA for 24 h, the expression of M-CSF was up-regulated; the signal was detected in both the cytoplasm (long arrow) and nucleus (short arrow) of each cell.