Conditioned medium from hADMPCs exposed to oxidative stress induces neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. (A, B) Decrease of the reduced/oxidized glutathione ratios and increase in the intracellular ROS levels in hADMPCs treated with BSO. hADMPCs were treated with 1 mM BSO for 16 h, and cellular GSH/GSSG levels (A) or ROS (H2O2) levels (B) were analyzed. (C-G) Induction of neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells by conditioned medium from BSO-treated hADMPCs. PC12 cells were induced to differentiation by changing medium to differentiation medium alone (C), CM-BSO (−) (D), CM-BSO (+) (E), or differentiation medium with NGF (50 ng/mL) (F) for 2 days. Scale bars, 200 μm. (G) One hundred individual neurites were measured in each sample using Dynamic Cell Count Analyzer BZ-H1C (Keyence, Osaka, Japan) and average neurite length was calculated. **, P < 0.01 (Student’s t test). (H) Percentage of neurite-bearing PC12 cells. A cell was scored positive for bearing neurites if it has a thin neurite extension that is double the length of the cell body diameter. A total of 500–600 cells in each sample were counted. **, P < 0.01 (Student’s t test).