Dvl expression activates JNK. A) Induction of Dvl-ER expression for three hours with β-estradiol increases the level of p-c-Jun, a read-out of endogenous JNK activity, when compared to controls. Low levels of Anisomicin also increase the level of p-c-Jun when compared with control untreated EGFP-expressing neurons or neurons exposed to β-estradiol for three hrs. However, the levels of total c-Jun remain unchanged. B) Quantification of three independent experiments shows that induction of Dvl-ER expression induces a 40% increase in p-c-Jun levels compare to control. C) Expression of Dvl increases the level of p-JNK decorating the MT network along neurites when compared to EGFP-expressing control neurons. Pseudocolor panels show Dvl increases the level of p-JNK associated with microtubules. Scale bar 5 μm. Two asterisks, P < 0.01.