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Table 2 Pathophysiological conditions linked to connexin hemichannel or pannexin channel regulation. EC: endothelial cells; MS: mesangial cells; n.d.: not determined

From: Pannexin channel and connexin hemichannel expression in vascular function and inflammation

Protein Condition Regulation Cell type Tissue origin Species Reference
Connexin hemichannelsa
Cx43 Gram-positive bacterial cell wall component peptidoglycan-induced immune response Opening EC Brain Mouse [128]
Cx43 Hypoxia Opening EC Brain Rat [124]
Cx43 Hypoxia Closure EC Skin Human [54]
Cx43 Acute ischemic stroke mimicking (absence of extracellular Ca2+) Opening EC Brain Human [35]
Cx43 Retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury Opening EC Retina Rat [123]
Cx43 Retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury Opening EC Retina Rat [124]
Cx43 Bradykinin-induced inflammation Opening EC Brain Rat/bovine [34]
Cx43 Thrombin-induced inflammatory response Closure EC Cornea Bovine [129]
Cx43 Diabetes (high glucose/cytokines treatment)-mimicking conditions Opening MS Kidney Mouse [132]
Cx43 Surgical implantation of medical devices Opening EC n.d. Human/rat [130]
Pannexin channelsa  
Panx1 Acute ischemic stroke mimicking (absence of extracellular Ca2+) Opening EC Brain Human [35]
Panx1 Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury Opening n.d. Brain Rat [125]
Panx1 Pro-inflammatory neurotransmitter CGRP release Opening EC Mesentery Rat [37]
Panx1 M-CSF-induced HSP-70 release immune response Opening EC n.d. Human [126]
Panx1 TNFα-induced acute inflammation Opening EC Diverse Mouse/human [45]
Panx1 Thrombin-induced inflammation Opening EC Umbilical vein Human [112]
Panx1 Surgical harvesting of vessel Opening EC Saphenous Vein Human [131]
  1. aNote that the connexin hemichannel work has been proposed almost exclusively through pharmacological extrapolation, whereas the pannexin work combines genetic and pharmacological confirmation