Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Characteristics of the study population by cancer status defined at the end of the follow up period. All the serum markers are dichotomized using standard clinical cut-offs

From: Metabolic profiles to predict long-term cancer and mortality: the use of latent class analysis

  Total
N = 13,615 (100%)
No Cancer
N = 11,659 (85.63%)
Cancer
N = 1,956 (14.37%)
Age (years)
 Mean (SD) 51.91 (14.80) 50.86 (15.00) 58.14 (11.75)
 Under 40 2951 (21.67) 2841 (24.37) 110 (5.62)
 40–50 3550 (26.07) 3148 (27.00) 402 (20.55)
 50–60 3065 (22.51) 2491 (21.37) 574 (29.35)
 Above 60 4049 (29.74) 3179 (27.27) 870 (44.48)
Sex
 Female 7588 (55.73) 6636 (56.92) 952 (48.67)
 Male 6027 (44.27) 5023 (43.08) 1004 (51.33)
Socio-economics Status
 High 6493 (47.69) 5416 (46.45) 1077 (55.06)
 Low 5007 (36.78) 4368 (37.46) 639 (32.67)
 Not employed or missing 2115 (15.53) 1875 (16.08) 240 (12.27)
Educational Status
 High 4313 (33.42) 3688 (33.40) 625 (33.57)
 Middle 5495 (42.58) 4725 (42.79) 770 (41.35)
 Low 3097 (24.00) 2630 (23.82) 467 (25.08)
 Missing b 710 (5.21) 616 (5.28) 94 (4.80)
CCI
 0 12258 (90.03) 10520 (90.23) 1738 (88.85)
 1 963 (7.07) 807 (6.92) 156 (7.98)
 2 221 (1.62) 188 (1.61) 33 (1.69)
3+ 173 (1.27) 144 (1.24) 29 (1.48)
Total Cholesterol (mmol/L)
 Mean(SD) 5.82 (1.17) 5.79 (1.18) 6.00 (1.13)
  < 6.50 9774 (71.79) 8453 (72.50) 1321 (67.54)
  ≥ 6.50 3841 (28.21) 3206 (27.50) 635 (32.46)
Triglycerides (mmol/L)
 Mean(SD) 1.44 (1.00) 1.43 (1.00) 1.48 (0.93)
  < 1.71 10128 (74.39) 8716 (74.76) 1412 (72.19)
  ≥ 1.71 3487 (25.61) 2943 (25.24) 544 (27.81)
Apolipoprotein A-1 (g/L)
 Mean(SD) 1.44 (0.23) 1.44 (0.23) 1.43 (0.23)
  < 1.05 328 (2.41) 278 (2.38) 50 (2.56)
  ≥ 1.05 13287 (97.59) 11381 (97.62) 1906 (97.44)
Apolipoprotein B (g/L)
 Mean(SD) 1.22 (0.35) 1.22 (0.35) 1.29 (0.34)
  < 1.50 10902 (80.07) 9431 (80.89) 1471 (75.20)
  ≥ 1.50 2713 (19.93) 2228 (19.11) 485 (24.80)
HDL Cholesterol (mmol/L)
 Mean(SD) 1.54 (0.43) 1.54 (0.43) 1.52 (0.43)
  < 1.03 1457 (10.70) 1231 (10.56) 226 (11.55)
  ≥ 1.03 12158 (89.30) 10428 (89.44) 1730 (88.45)
LDL Cholesterol (mmol/L)
 Mean(SD) 3.64 (1.06) 3.61 (1.06) 3.82 (1.04)
  < 4.10 9345 (68.64) 8128 (69.71) 1217 (62.22)
  ≥ 4.10 4270 (31.36) 3531 (30.29) 739 (37.78)
Glucose (mmol/L)
 Mean(SD) 5.22 (1.53) 5.21 (1.53) 5.30 (1.53)
  < 6.11 12223 (89.78) 10488 (89.96) 1735 (88.70)
  ≥ 6.11 1392 (10.22) 1171 (10.04) 221 (11.30)
Fructosamine (mmol/L)
 Mean(SD) 2.09 (0.27) 2.08 (0.27) 2.10 (0.25)
  < 2.6 13184 (96.83) 11291 (96.84) 1893 (96.78)
  ≥ 2.6 431 (3.17) 368 (3.16) 63 (3.22)
GGT (IU/L) d
 Mean(SD) 33.21 (48.12) 32.74 (48.09) 36.03 (48.21)
 Normal (< 18) 5511 (40.48) 4827 (41.40) 684 (34.97)
Normal high (18–36) 4983 (36.60) 4236 (36.33) 747 (38.19)
Elevated (36–72) 2098 (15.41) 1750 (15.01) 348 (17.79)
Highly elevated (> 72) 1023 (7.51) 846 (7.26) 177 (9.05)
AST (IU/L)
 Mean(SD) 22.84 (19.23) 22.70 (19.60) 23.64 (16.88)
  < 45 13155 (96.62) 11271 (96.67) 1884 (96.32)
  ≥ 45 460 (3.38) 388 (3.33) 72 (3.68)
ALT (IU/L)
 Mean(SD) 29.02 (34.35) 28.95 (35.73) 29.41 (24.54)
  < 50 12296 (90.31) 10546 (90.45) 1750 (89.47)
  ≥ 50 1319 (9.69) 1113 (9.55) 206 (10.53)
Albumin (g/L)
 Mean(SD) 43.05 (2.82) 43.13 (2.83) 42.58 (2.72)
  < 35 28 (0.21) 23 (0.20) 5 (0.26)
  > 35 13587 (99.79) 11636 (99.80) 1951 (99.74)
Leukocytes (109 cells/L)
 Mean(SD) 6.52 (1.97) 6.49 (1.96) 6.65 (2.01)
  < 10 12956 (95.16) 11106 (95.26) 1850 (94.58)
  ≥ 10 659 (4.84) 553 (4.74) 106 (5.42)
C-Reactive Protein (mg/L)
 Mean(SD) 5.86 (15.14) 5.82 (14.25) 6.16 (19.58)
  < 10 11858 (87.1) 10193 (87.43) 1665 (85.12)
10–15 1196 (8.78) 993 (8.52) 203 (10.38)
15–25 265 (1.95) 223 (1.91) 42 (2.15)
25–50 200 (1.47) 167 (1.43) 33 (1.69)
  > 50 96 (0.71) 223 (0.71) 13 (0.66)
Iron (μmol/L) d
 Mean(SD) 18.13 (5.80) 18.13 (5.83) 18.11 (5.59)
Low 636 (4.67) 540 (4.63) 96 (4.91)
 Normal 12512 (91.90) 10715 (91.90) 1797 (91.87)
High 467 (3.43) 404 (3.47) 63 (3.22)
TIBC (mg/dL) d
 Mean(SD) 0.39 (0.11) 0.31 (0.11) 0.31 (0.10)
Low 4067 (29.87) 3494 (29.97) 573 (29.29)
 Normal 6650 (48.84) 5683 (48.74) 967 (49.44)
High 2898 (21.29) 2482 (21.29) 416 (21.27)
Creatinine (μmol/L) d
 Mean(SD) 79.65 (16.16) 79.38 (16.37) 81.26 (14.74)
 Low 40 (0.29) 31 (0.27) 9 (0.46)
 Normal 12088 (88.78) 10392 (89.13) 1696 (86.71)
High 1487 (10.92) 1236 (10.60) 251 (12.83)
Phosphate (mmol/L) d
 Mean(SD) 1.07 (0.17) 1.07 (0.17) 1.05 (0.17)
 Low 95 (0.70) 76 (0.65) 19 (0.97)
 Normal 12796 (93.98) 10948 (93.90) 1848 (94.48)
High 724 (5.32) 635 (5.45) 89 (4.55)
Calcium (mmol/L) d
 Mean(SD) 2.38 (0.09) 2.38 (0.09) 2.38 (0.10)
 Low 191 (1.40) 167 (1.43) 24 (1.23)
 Normal 13195 (96.92) 11300 (96.92) 1895 (96.88)
High 229 (1.68) 192 (1.65) 37 (1.89)
Log (triglycerides/HDL) c
 mean(SD) (−)0.19 (0.81) (−)0.20 (0.82) (−)0.14 (0.80)
  < 0.5 11197 (82.24) 9618 (82.49) 1579 (80.73)
  ≥ 0.5 2418 (17.76) 2041 (17.51) 377 (19.27)
ApoB/ApoA-I c
 mean(SD) 0.87 (0.29) 0.87 (0.29) 0.92 (0.30)
  < 1.00 9584 (70.39) 8347 (71.59) 1237 (63.24)
  ≥ 1.00 4031 (29.61) 3312 (28.41) 719 (36.76)
Life Status
 Alive 10457 (76.80) 9385 (80.50) 1072 (54.81)
 Death 3158 (23.20) 2274 (19.50) 884 (45.19)
 Cancer 1956 (14.90) 11659 (0.00) 1956 (100.00)
  1. The following abbreviations have been used in Table 1: High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Gamma-Glutamyl transferase (GGT), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Total iron binding capacity (TIBC).
  2. aClinically abnormal cut-off values are highlighted for each biomarker.
  3. bThe missing values are not included in the percentage of the Educational Status categories.
  4. cRatios are dimensionless.
  5. dClinical cut-offs
  6. The following cut-offs criteria was applied:
  7. GGT reference interval:
  8. Low [GGT < 18 IU/L].
  9. Normal high [18 IU/L ≥ GGT < 36 IU/L].
  10. Elevated [36 IU/L ≥ GGT < 72 IU/L].
  11. High elevated [GGT ≥ 72 IU/L].
  12. Iron reference interval:
  13. Men [Low ≤11, Normal = 11–31, High ≥31].
  14. Women [Low ≤9, Normal = 9–30, High≥30].
  15. TIBC reference interval:
  16. Men [Low ≤0.257, Normal = 0.257–0.379, High ≥0.379].
  17. Women [Low ≤0.246, Normal = 0.246–0.391, High ≥0.391].
  18. Creatinine reference interval:
  19. Men [Low ≤60, Normal = 60–100, High ≥100].
  20. Women [Low ≤45, Norma l = 45–90, High ≥90].
  21. Phosphate reference interval:
  22. Men [Low ≤0.7, Normal = 0.7–1.4, High ≥1.4].
  23. Women [Low ≤0.8, Normal = 0.8–1.4, High ≥1.4].
  24. Calcium reference interval per gender by age:
  25. Men
  26. [Age < 40, Low ≤2.22, Normal = 2.22–2.60, High ≥2.60].
  27. [Age 40–60, Low ≤2.20, Normal = 2.20–2.59, High ≥2.59]
  28. [Age > 60, Low ≤2.19, Normal = 2.19–2.58, High ≥2.58]
  29. Women
  30. [Age < 40, Low ≤2.17, Normal = 2.17–2.56, High ≥2.56].
  31. [Age 40–60, Low ≤2.19, Normal = 2.19–2.60, High ≥2.60]
  32. [Age > 60, Low ≤2.21, Normal = 2.21–2.60, High ≥2.60]
  33. Abnormal clinical cut-off values of the biomarkers are indicated in the table in boldface