Effect of glycated albumin (GA) on cultured retinal microglial cells. (A) Phase-contrast image of purified retinal microglial cells after 72 h. The cells have a ramified shape, with a single long process and a small cell body (short arrow). (B) Following exposure to 250 μg/mL GA for 24 h, the cells became rounder, larger, and amoeboid in shape (long arrow) (original magnification: × 100). (C) Microglial cells without GA exposure show weak Iba1 immunofluorescence (red) in the cytoplasm. (D) Following exposure to 250 μg/mL GA for 24 h, Iba1 expression was up-regulated, and the protein was translocated to membrane ruffles. The nuclei of the microglia are labeled with DAPI (blue).