Oxytocin significantly recovered neovascularization in the Matrigel plug assay (n=3). (A) Gross images of Matrigel plugs harvested 2 weeks after subcutaneous injection into athymic nude mice. Note the substantial increased neovascularization in Matrigel containing DM-MSC compared with PBS-containing Matrigel. (B) Representative H&E-stained images of Matrigel plugs; arrows indicate vascular structures containing red blood cells. (C) The neovasculature formed by MSC in Matrigel plugs was quantified by immunohistochemical staining with anti-human CD31 IgG. *p< 0.05 vs. Non-DM-MSC; # p< 0.05 vs. OT-DM-MSC.