Skip to main content


  • Commentary
  • Open Access

A new standard nomenclature for proteins related to Apx and Shroom

  • 1,
  • 2,
  • 1,
  • 3,
  • 4,
  • 5,
  • 6,
  • 7 and
  • 8Email author
BMC Cell Biology20067:18

  • Received: 29 March 2006
  • Accepted: 14 April 2006
  • Published:


Shroom is a recently-described regulator of cell shape changes in the developing nervous system. This protein is a member of a small family of related proteins that are defined by sequence similarity and in most cases by some link to the actin cytoskeleton. At present these proteins are named Shroom, APX, APXL, and KIAA1202. In light of the growing interest in this family of proteins, we propose here a new standard nomenclature.


  • Related Protein
  • Anopheles Gambiae
  • Standard Nomenclature
  • Protein Family Member
  • Arabic Number
In 1992, the primary structure of an a pical protein in X enopus (Apx) was described [1]. Since then, three related proteins have been characterized, namely the human proteins APXL (a pical p rotein X enopus-like) [2] and KIAA1202 [3] and mouse Shroom [4], named after the mouse mutant phenotype. We now know that the Apx protein of Xenopus is not in fact the orthologue of human APXL. Instead, the protein previously called human APXL2 is the likely homologue of frog Apx, while human APXL is the likely homologue of a Xenopus APXL. In this letter, we report a new standardized nomenclature to eliminate the confusing present naming situation for these proteins (Table 1).
Table 1

New nomenclature for Shroom-related proteins

GenBank Accession Number

Previous name

New name


X. laevis Apx



H. sapiens APXL2



H. sapiens APXL



M. musculus Apxl



M. musculus ShroomL



M. musculus ShroomS



H. sapiens Shroom



X. laevis Shroom-like



H. sapiens KIAA1202



H. sapiens SHAP-A



M. musculus KIAA1202



D. melanogaster Shroom



A. gambiae Shroom



A. mellifera Shroom



S. purpuratus Shroom


From global multiple alignments of genomic sequences, it is clear that these proteins are not simply encoded by homologous genes. There are in fact four different proteins in this family, showing similarity in their domains (Table 2), which include a PDZ and two A px/S hrm d omains (ASD1 and ASD2) and putative EVH1 and PDZ binding sites [4]. It should be noted however that Apx lacks the PDZ domain and the EVH1 binding site, APXL lacks a PDZ binding site and KIAA1202 does not contain an obvious ASD1 domain. Therefore, the ASD2 domain seems to be the common denominator among family members.
Table 2

Sequence identity matrix for the four different Shroom proteins which have been characterised experimentally.























a This table makes use of the new nomenclature presented in Table 1. To avoid evolution-based dissimilarity, the human homologues have been used in the analysis. b Percent sequence identity is given in the format global/PDZ/ASD1/ASD2; NA, not applicable. Global sequence identity is based on those residues aligning to hShroom1 residues 1 – 826. The alignments on which this matrix is based were created using ClustalW. They are available upon request.

Bioinformatics-based searches identified Shroom-related proteins in all chordates examined. In addition, insect genomes, including Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae and Apis mellifera, encode a partially related protein containing an ASD2 domain (Table 1). Finally, BLAST searches of the deposited sequences from invertebrate genome projects identify what may be considered Shroom orthologues in both Ciona intestinalis (data not shown) and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Table 1). Based on the putative open reading frames and genomic organization, these predicted proteins contain, at least, the N-terminal PDZ domain and the C-terminally positioned ASD2 motif.

To clarify future studies, we propose a unifying nomenclature, emphasizing the relatedness of those proteins (Table 1). We feel that while the founding member is Apx, this name is undesirable as a root for naming this family because it requires that 'Xenopus' would appear in protein names from all species. Instead, we propose that the new nomenclature be based upon the name 'Shroom' as this is now the most thoroughly studied member of the family [46]. An Arabic number following 'Shroom' would distinguish between the different proteins. A lower-case letter would distinguish between different protein products encoded by the same locus generated by alternative mRNA processing. According to these rules, we suggest the re-naming presented in Table 1.

Several papers suggest that these related proteins play diverse and important roles in the development of the nervous system and other tissues [28]. Future studies will be required to show if sequence similarity among Shroom protein family members is mirrored by conservation of their cellular and molecular function.

Authors’ Affiliations

Dept. of Human Molecular Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany
Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine, Naples, Italy
Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research and the Institute of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
Dept. of Biotechnology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
Dept. of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
Dept. of Pharmacology & Toxicology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
Dept. of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Dept. of Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology & Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA


  1. Staub O, Verrey F, Kleyman TR, Benos DJ, Rossier BC, Kraehenbuhl JP: Primary structure of an apical protein from Xenopus laevis that participates in amiloride-sensitive sodium channel activity. J Cell Biol. 1992, 119 (6): 1497-1506. 10.1083/jcb.119.6.1497.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Schiaffino MV, Bassi MT, Rugarli EI, Renieri A, Galli L, Ballabio A: Cloning of a human homologue of the Xenopus laevis APX gene from the ocular albinism type 1 critical region. Hum Mol Genet. 1995, 4 (3): 373-382.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Hagens O, Dubos A, Abidi F, Barbi G, Van Zutven L, Hoeltzenbein M, Tommerup N, Moraine C, Fryns JP, Chelly J, van Bokhoven H, Gecz J, Dollfus H, Ropers HH, Schwartz CE, de Cassia Stocco Dos Santos R, Kalscheuer V, Hanauer A: Disruptions of the novel KIAA1202 gene are associated with X-linked mental retardation. Hum Genet. 2005, 1-13.Google Scholar
  4. Hildebrand JD, Soriano P: Shroom, a PDZ domain-containing actin-binding protein, is required for neural tube morphogenesis in mice. Cell. 1999, 99 (5): 485-497. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81537-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Haigo SL, Hildebrand JD, Harland RM, Wallingford JB: Shroom induces apical constriction and is required for hingepoint formation during neural tube closure. Curr Biol. 2003, 13 (24): 2125-2137. 10.1016/j.cub.2003.11.054.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Hildebrand JD: Shroom regulates epithelial cell shape via the apical positioning of an actomyosin network. J Cell Sci. 2005, 118: 5191-5203. 10.1242/jcs.02626.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Prat AG, Holtzman EJ, Brown D, Cunningham CC, Reisin IL, Kleyman TR, McLaughlin M, Jackson GRJ, Lydon J, Cantiello HF: Renal epithelial protein (Apx) is an actin cytoskeleton-regulated Na+ channel. J Biol Chem. 1996, 271 (30): 18045-18053. 10.1074/jbc.271.30.17704.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Zuckerman JB, Chen X, Jacobs JD, Hu B, Kleyman TR, Smith PR: Association of the epithelial sodium channel with Apx and alpha-spectrin in A6 renal epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 1999, 274 (33): 23286-23295. 10.1074/jbc.274.33.23286.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar


© Hagens et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2006

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.